Tag Archives: Writing

English Material: “How about” vs “What about”

image what about vs how aboutEnglish Teaching Material: “How about” vs “What about”.

Use “How about?” to give suggestion (Gunakan “how about” untuk menyatakan/ memberikan saran).
“How about?” can be followed by verb-ing or by a pronoun and verb1.
• How about going to the cinema?
• How about we rent a DVD?

Examples:
A: I’ve got the day off from work tomorrow. What should we do?
B: How about going to the cinema?
A: I don’t really feel like going out.
B: How about we just rent a DVD and watch it at home?
A: That sounds good.

“What about?” is often used when someone is asking for an opinion to a choice (“What about” sering digunakan ketika seseorang meminta pendapat atas suatu pilihan)
• What about the green one? That looks pretty on you.

We can also use “What about?” to mention an objection (Kita juga bisa menggunakan “what about” untuk menyatakan alasan karena merasa keberatan atau tidak setuju)

Examples:
A: Let’s spend the weekend in the city.
B: But what about my piano lesson on Saturday?
A: That’s no problem, just talk to the teacher and reschedule it.

To download this file (“how about” vs “what about”) in pdf, click here»…

*** Source: Learn English with Demi

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English Material: Relative Pronouns; that, who, whose, to whom, of which

image relative pronounsDownload: English materials; topic: relative pronouns, e.g. that, who, whom, whose, which, to whom, of which, from which. File: pdf. The explanation of the materials uses Bahasa Indonesia. This file is intended to be used by Indonesian students as the preparation for taking English tests, such as national exam and University entrance tests.
Here is the excerpt of the file.
Inilah kutipan file-nya:

  • Ringkasan: Relative Pronouns adalah kata ganti yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua klausa/kalimat. Misalnya: that, who, whom, whose, which.
  • Bahasan Materi:
  • Relative Pronouns Tunggal / Satu Kata; misalkan: that, who, whom, whose, which.
  • Relative Pronouns Kombinasi/Gabungan; misalkan: to whom, for whom, of which.
  • Latihan Soal dan Pembahasan.

Download the file (Relative Pronouns), in pdf, click here»…

Modules for Teaching English

image designing lesson planFree download: Modules for Teaching English in Indonesia, especially for English teachers in SMP and SMA. File: pdf. Source: Center for Development and Empowerment of Teachers and Education Personnel (CDETEP) or known as Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan (PPPPTK). There are five modules/articles you can download for free:

(1) Introduction to Genre Based Approach. This module describes the features of Genre Based Approach involving its methodology, text types, learning cycles and application in the teaching of English… » Click here to download…

(2) Materials Development. This module discusses the concepts, principles, procedures and techniques in developing materials for teaching English… » Click here to download…

(3) Designing Lesson Plan. This module explains how to design lesson plan. It describes the concepts, components, principles and stages in designing lesson plan… » Click here to download…

(4) Instructional Media. This module tells about the definition, kinds and samples of instructional media used for teaching English… » Click here to download…

(5) Language Assessment. This module talks about assessments on the students’ achievement in learning English. It gives description on how to assess listening, speaking, reading and writing skills… » Click here to download…

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Materi Bahasa Inggris: have, have got, have to dan have got to

Free download. Materi Bahasa Inggris:  have, have got, have to, have got to. Grade: SMP/Mts/SMA/MA/SMK. File pdf.

1). Have dan have got

“Have got / has got” memiliki arti yang sama dengan “have”. Dalam Bahasa Indonesia sering diartikan: mempunyai, memiliki, mendapatkan, mengalami.
Contoh:
I have a new car          = I have got a new car (I’ve got a new car)
She has a toothache   = She has got a toothache (She’s got a toothache)

Kata have got / has got lebih sering dipakai dalam situasi informal, misalkan dalam percakapan sehari-hari atau dialog di film. Penggunaan have dan have got dalam kalimat positif, negatif dan interogatif sebagai berikut…  download selengkapnya »klik di sini…

2). Have to dan have got to

“Have got to/ has got to” memiliki arti yang sama dengan “have to” dan “must”. Dalam Bahasa Indonesia sering diartikan: “harus” (obligation) atau “pasti” (certainty).
Pola :  must / have to / have got to +  Verb1

Contoh penggunaan have to, have got to dan must sebagai berikut…  download selengkapnya »klik di sini…

Download materi Bahasa Inggris lainnya… »klik di sini…

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Genre: An Approach on the Teaching of English

images english bookThe word ‘genre’ comes from The French (originally Latin) word for kind or class. The term genre was first introduced in the area of English as specific purpose (ESP) in 1981, in an ESP journal article by Elaine Tarone and her colleagues on the language of scientific reports (Paltridge, 2001, p.2). In addition, Mahwah (2002) explains that genre as a mean for analyzing text has become a means for better pragmatic and linguistic understanding of texts It also supplies possible pedagogical applications. It devoted to genre pedagogy adds to pedagogical thinking because it stretches notions of what can be done in the reading and writing classroom. Further explanation from Chaldler ( 2005) that term genre is widely used in rhetoric, literary theory, media theory, and more recently linguistics, to refer a distinctive type of the texts.

From the description above a conclusion that can be drawn is that genre has the strong relation with the text. What is text? Texts are made of words. Words are around us. When words are used to make meaning the text is created (Rajan, 2003: v). So the text that we use in this research refers to Encyclopedia Britanica (2008) which says that text is a unit of connected speech or writing , especially composed of more than one sentence, that form a cohesive form.

There are thousands of texts around us. The text can be classified into genre through three characteristics, they are purpose of communication, organization structure and language features. The purpose of communication or social function is the reasons why we speak or write or create the text. Organization structure of the text or generic structure is the text organization or text arrangement. Language features or lexical grammar that is such things as the grammar, vocabulary and connectors that we use.

Further information from Lin (2006) says that genre refer to more specific classes of texts, such as newspaper reports or recipes. Furthermore Partridge (2001) genre describe types of activities such as personal letter, advertisement students essay and the term of text type represent group of text which are similar in linguistic form such as Procedure, anecdote, description. However, the term of genre in this proposal is means type of the text. This term has been widely used in the recent English curriculum in Indonesia. The definition of Genre or type of the text in this proposal refers to definition given by Martin, cited in Partridge (2001, p. 11) that is a staged, goal oriented, purposeful activity in which speakers engage as members of a culture.

There are twelve genres or types of the texts should be taught at Senior High School, they are recount, report, discussion, explanation, Exposition analytical, exposition hortatory, news item, anecdote, narrative, procedure, description and review (depdiknas, 2005)

One widely accepted classroom application of teaching English using the genre-based approach is the “teaching and learning cycle” or also referred to as “the curriculum cycle”. This cycle consists of four main stages; they are building knowledge of field, modeling of text, join construction of text and independent construction of text. It aims to provide support for learners as they go through each stage of the cycle. The following elaboration of the teaching and learning cycle is adapted from Paltridge (2001).

1. Building Knowledge of the Field (BKoF)

This stage is the preparation stage. So, the first activity is to prepare student to get into the new topic of the text. Suppose that the focus genre is narrative, students should identify the topic of the text, whether the text is about Lancang Kuning or Malin Kundang. The next step is to give students the experience about the content of the text. The activities can be in form of questions and answers about the narrative texts which have been read by students. Because this is the preparation stage, teachers should enlarge the students vocabulary as well as to make students interested in reading the text.

2. Modeling of Text (MoT)

In this stage teachers give example of the text. For spoken cycle this stage is used to develop listening, so the activities are listening comprehension. In written cycle the activities are reading comprehension. Procedural knowledge or text organization is introduced in this stage.

3. Joint Construction of the Text (JCoT)

Self confidence is very important in developing language skills, so in this stage the teachers build students self confidence in productive skills either speaking or writing. For this purpose, the teachers give opportunity to students to cooperate in pair or in group. So that they can o learn from others. The example activities for spoken cycle are role play, games, interview, discussion and debate. For written cycle can be collaborative writing (Brain storming, organizing idea, drafting, revising, editing)

4. Independent Construction of the Text (ICoT)

At the end of the process of teaching and learning the individual achievement should be measured. So one of the purpose of this stage is to know haw far the students master the lesson individually and students must have the responsibility for their own learning. The teachers also have to try to encourage students’ creativity in this stage, because in this stage for spoken cycle each student should have monologue in focused genre and in the written cycle students should produce the text of focused genre. (Source: http://lana-cometorich.blogspot.com)

Download the article completely (file pdf), click here>>>…

Read in Bahasa Indonesia (translated by google), click here>>>…

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ANALISIS SOAL BAHASA INGGRIS 2009

imagesSecara umum, soal-soal Bahasa Inggris UN SMP, SMA maupun SNMPTN 2009 mengalami perubahan dibandingkan tahun-tahun sebelumnya. Boleh dikata, soal diformat full reading. Tidak ada lagi soal-soal yang mengacu pada language focus, grammar maupun expressions.

Untuk tingkat SMP, tidak dijumpai lagi soal grammar pokok bahasan ‘tenses’, seperti ini:

1. Andi : Is this your grandfather’s house? It is very antique.

Rina : Yes, he ______ it in 1940.

A. builds

B. is building

C. built

D. has built

Pembahasan: Ada keterangan waktu lampau (tahun 1940), berarti simple past, menggunakan verb 2, yang merupakan verb2 adalah built.

Jawab: C (built)

Atau pokok bahasan ‘elliptical sentences’, seperti ini:

2. Chairul : Amir had an accident two days ago. I have not visited him yet.

Hamid : ______

A. Neither have I

B. Neither do I

C. I haven’t, too

D. So I don’t

Pembahasan: Kalimat induk negative bentuk present perfect (have not visited), maka bentuk ellip-nya menggunakan neither atau either. Karena tenses present perfect (have/has + verb3), maka kata kerja bantu yang tepat adalah have/has.

Jawab: A

Atau juga pokok bahasan ‘Expressions’, seperti ini:

3. Dessy : Let’s try to grow roses in front of our house.

Windy : That’s a good idea.

Dessy : So let’s do it now.

Windy : All right

The underlined utterance is used to show ……

A. agreement

B. disagreement

C. certainty

D. uncertainty

Pembahasan: Ucapan That’s a good idea merupakan ungkapan agreement (persetujuan).

Jawab: A


Hal yang sama juga berlaku dalam soal UN SMA. Selain soal Listening, semua soal reading dikemas dalam full reading text yang mencakup teks recount, narrative, descriptive, dan procedure.

Sedangkan untuk tes Bahasa Inggris Kemampuan Dasar SNMPTN, bukan hanya format soalnya saja yang berubah tetapi juga jumlah soal. Jika pada tahun-tahun sebelumnya jumlah soal Bahasa Inggris 25 nomor, maka pada SNMPTN 2009 soal Bahasa Inggris tinggal 15 nomor yang dikemas dalam 3 teks reading dengan tema Vitamin D deficiency, volunteering work, dan Reiki (energy management as an alternative medical treatment).

Maka, jangan berharap saat ini tips dan trik menjawab soal secara cepat bisa dipakai. Peserta harus melakukan intensive reading dalam menjawab soal. Untuk Bahasa Inggris, tips dan trik cara cepat memang lebih mengena terhadap bentuk soal language focus dan grammar.

Pertanyaannya kemudian ialah, dengan bentuk soal full reading, apakah bisa merepresentasikan hasil pembelajaran di sekolah?

Mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris, pada dasarnya, diarahkan untuk mengembangkan keterampilan listening, speaking, reading dan writing agar lulusan mampu berkomunikasi dan berwacana dalam bahasa Inggris pada tingkat literasi (literacy) tertentu.

Tingkat literasi mencakup performative, functional, informational, dan epistemic. Pada tingkat performative, orang mampu membaca, menulis, mendengarkan, dan berbicara dengan simbol-simbol yang digunakan. Pada tingkat functional, orang mampu menggunakan bahasa untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari seperti membaca surat kabar, manual atau petunjuk. Pada tingkat informational, orang mampu mengakses pengetahuan dengan kemampuan berbahasa, sedangkan pada tingkat epistemic orang mampu mengungkapkan pengetahuan ke dalam bahasa sasaran (Wells,1987).

Secara garis besar, pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris menekankan pada receptive dan productive abilities (kemampuan menerima dan memproduksi). Kemampuan receptive meliputi Listening dan Reading Skills, sedangkan kemampuan Productive meliputi Speaking dan Writing Skills.

Berdasarkan hal tersebut, maka jenis soal Bahasa Inggris 2009, lebih banyak menekankan pada receptive ability dan kurang mengakomodir productive ability.

Sebagai contoh, sangat disayangkan hilangnya soal expressions dalam bentuk dialog. Soal-soal dialog yang merupakan perwujudan Question and Responses, sangat menstimulus kemampuan produktif siswa dalam menggunakan Bahasa Inggris sebagai alat komunikasi. Umpamanya, dialog A dan B.  A berkata: Thank you very much, maka apa respon B? Nah, soal seperti ini pada akhirnya bisa meningkatkan keterampilan Speaking.

Banyak juga yang berpendapat bahwa untuk soal dengan muatan productive ability, diwujudkan dalam ujian praktik. Masalahnya, Ujian Praktik yang diselenggarakan oleh sekolah, hanyalah sekedar pelengkap dari formalitas belaka. Belum pernah terdengar ada siswa tidak lulus gara-gara nilai Ujian Praktik.

Dengan demikian, soal Bahasa Inggris untuk tahun-tahun mendatang sebaiknya diformat 60% reading texts, 20% expressions, dan 20% grammar.

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UPDATED » Klik di sini untuk Analisis dan Pembahasan soal UN SMP Bahasa Inggris 2010.